Journal Information

Instructions for authors

Impact factor

The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years.

© Clarivate Analytics, Journal Citation Reports 2022

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Impact factor 2022

CiteScore measures average citations received per document published.

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Citescore 2023

ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA is the Official Publication of the Asociación Española de Pediatría [Spanish Association of Paediatrics]. This journal is published in electronic format and it is available in a bilingual Spanish and English version at It is an open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal, that will consider all manuscript submissions dealing with paediatrics and related specialties.

ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA does not accept manuscripts that have been previously published on preprint platforms.

Types of article

All manuscripts published in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA should comply with the journal’s publishing guidelines and follow the format of one of the article types described below:

Original articles
Research on epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, pathology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Prospective, analytical study designs are recommended, including cross-sectional, longitudinal, case-control, cohort and controlled studies. Text length (excluding abstract, references, tables, and figure legends) should not exceed a total of 3,000 words. There should be no more than 40 references and a maximum of 8 figures or tables. We recommend that the article has a maximum of seven authors. In the case of multicenter studies, it will be possible to increase the number of authors after an adequate justification. If the number of authors is excessive, it is advisable to include them in the corresponding study group. It will be mandatory to include a graphical abstract (see "Graphical Abstract" section in this Guide for authors).

Scientific letters
Clinical case series or laboratory observations of special interest that implies a relevant contribution to understanding a disease within the context of current knowledge. The text (which should not have an abstract) should be no longer than 750 words and it may have a maximum of 6 references and 2 figures or tables. It should have no more than 5 authors. Single case reports will only be published under exceptional circumstances.

Images and videos in paediatrics
The aim of this type of article is to publish images illustrating clinical problems or relevant solutions for readers. The title should contain fewer than 8 words. The article should have a maximum of 4 authors. It may contain up to 3 figures and the accompanying text should not exceed 200 words, so that all the symbols in the images are adequately explained. It can also include a video in “.mp4” format that should not exceed a size of 150 MB. It should have a maximum of 3 references.

Letters to the Editor
This section is only open to correspondence on editorial matters and comments in response to articles published in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA in the past four months or related to topics addressed in such articles. The text should be no longer than 500 words, and have a maximum of 4 references and 2 figures or tables. It should have no more than 4 authors.

These articles discuss recent advances in paediatrics, preferably related to one of the articles published in the same issue. Editorials are commissioned by the Journal Editorial Board. They should not exceed 1,200 words or have more than 5 references.

Asociación Española de Pediatría
This section will include articles by the AEP Executive Committee, those produced at its request, publications by the AEP Committees and Working Groups, consensus articles by at least two of the AEP's Specialised Scientific Societies or their Working Groups or Committees, in which case they must be endorsed by the corresponding Specialised Societies.

Articles or manuscripts submitted for this section will require the approval of the AEP Executive Committee; when they are sent for publication and accepted, they will be informed of the order of publication in accordance with the dates of submission and the considerations of the journal's Editorial Committee and the AEP Executive Committee.

The size and structure of manuscripts should be the same as for original articles. The recommended number of authors is similar to that of the original articles.

Special articles
The Editorial Board of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA will select and invite authors to write special articles or review subjects of particular interest in paediatric practice. Manuscripts submitted by institutions, working groups, and scientific societies will also be considered in this section. These proposals will be evaluated by the Editorial Committee and, where appropriate, by double-blind peer-review. Manuscript size and structure should be as the original articles. Authorship should also be as the original articles.

Other sections
The various scientific societies belonging to the Asociación Española de Pediatría may publish part of their summaries of meetings and congresses in the Spanish electronic version of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA, at their request. Articles should be submitted as a single MS Word file in the order and structure intended for publication.

Contact details for submission
Open Access

This is an Open Access journal: articles can be consulted and downloaded immediately and permanently free of charge. This journal has no page charges. The Creative Commons licence present in each article defines the permitted uses of the article.


This journal accepts articles written in Spanish or English, and it is published in both languages.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

First page:

  • One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details (E-mail address, Full postal address).
  • All necessary files have been uploaded.

Anonymous manuscript: 

  • Include keywords.
  • All figures (include relevant captions).
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes).
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided.
  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print.
  • Check that the body of the manuscript (with figures, tables, references, and acknowledgments) or the graphical abstract do not include the authors' identification or their affiliations.

Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable).

Supplemental files (where applicable).

Further considerations:

  • The manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'.
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa.
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet).
  • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare.
  • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed.
  • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements.

For further information, visit our Publishing Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Accepted manuscripts will become the permanent property of the journal and may only be reproduced in part or full with the latter’s permission. Articles that have been published by or submitted to other journals will not be accepted.

The authors are responsible for obtaining the appropriate permission to reproduce in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA any previously published material (text, tables, or figures). This permission must be requested from both the author and the publisher of such material.

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Informed consent and patient details

Research and/or Ethics Committees In the methods’ section, authors should state that procedures undertaken by participants were performed after obtaining informed consent from parents. The study must have been reviewed and approved by the Research and/or Ethics Committees of the institution where the study was conducted. In the case of research involving animals, authors should indicate whether they have complied with the corresponding recommendations issued by institutional and national regulatory bodies on laboratory animal care and use. In clinical case descriptions in any sections of the journal, mainly when the patient is identifiable either by the description of the disease or in the figures that accompany the article, the authors have to declare that they are in possession of a written informed consent signed by the parents to state their permission to publish the text and any images. Likewise, in all cases, authors should declare that they have followed the protocols in place at their healthcare institutions with regard to access to medical records when such data is to be used for research purposes and dissemination among the scientific community.

For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of interest

In the section Additional Information, authors are obliged to specify whether there are any conflicts of interest that affect their manuscript. In particular, in the case of commercial products, authors must declare whether they hold an agreement with any of the companies whose products appear in the submitted
manuscript or whether they have received financial support of any kind from such companies. The purpose of this is to discuss how these circumstances can be referred to in the article with the affected authors. In all cases, the requirements stated in An Esp Pediatr 2002; 56: 497-499 must be fulfilled, and any such relationships that have existed in the past five years must be expressly declared. More information.

Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing

The below guidance only refers to the writing process, and not to the use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of the research process.

Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should only use these technologies to improve readability and language. Applying the technology should be done with human oversight and control, and authors should carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased. AI and AI-assisted technologies should not be listed as an author or co-author, or be cited as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors.

Authors should disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.

Disclosure instructions
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of Generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.

Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.

This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.


Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Sex and gender reporting

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the SSex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the S SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the Sresources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.


Only authors who have made an intellectual contribution to the work should be credited in the list of authors. Assisting in data collection or participating in a particular test are not sufficient criteria in themselves to be credited as an author. In general, authorship should be based on the fulfillment of the following requirements:

1. Participation in the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of the data, that has resulted in the article in question.

2. Participation in manuscript writing and any revisions.

3. Final approval was given to the version to be published.

Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. The Editorial Secretariat of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA shall not be liable for any disputes arising from the authorship of the articles published in the Journal.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

In the section Enter Comments it is mandatory to include a letter, stating that:

  • The manuscript has only been submitted to ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA and therefore it is not under consideration elsewhere and it has not been previously published in part or full. These restrictions do not apply to abstracts pertaining to conference proceedings or other scientific meetings.
  • The authors are responsible for the research.
  • The authors have participated in its conception and design; data analysis and interpretation; drafting and review of the manuscript; and in the approval of the final text that has been submitted to ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA.

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

The manuscript will first be examined by the Directors’ and Editors’ Team and if it is considered valid, it will be sent for external review. The Directors’ and Editors’ Team reserves the right to reject work that it considers not to be appropriate either immediately or after peer review. It may also propose revisions to the manuscript as deemed necessary. Before the article is published in print or in electronic format, the corresponding author will be sent the proofs by email, which should be corrected and returned within 48 hours of reception.

Article elements

The parts of a standard (original) article should be ordered on separate pages as follows: Title page, abstract and keywords, main text, references, tables, and figure legends. All pages should be consecutively numbered.

Title page
This should be a separate document. The title page should contain the following details:

  • Article title. This should be as explicit as possible and must not exceed 85 characters, excluding spaces. It should not include words such as ‘‘child’’, ‘‘childhood’’ ‘‘paediatrics’’, because they are already implicit in the journal name.
  • Running title not exceeding 40 characters, excluding spaces.
  • List of authors in the order that they are to appear in the publication. Use the first name and surname(s) of each author. Note that the format used to cite the authors in the manuscript will be followed in the published article, if accepted, and also in the various bibliographic databases where ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA is referenced.
  • Place of work and full postal address.
  • Funding source and number, if applicable.
  • Prior presentation at meetings, congresses, and symposiums, with name, city, and date.
  • Name, address, telephone, and email of the corresponding author.
  • Word count of the main text, excluding the abstract, references, tables, and figure legends.
  • Submission date.
Peer review

This journal operates a peer review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Anonymized manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgments) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations. If this information is included in the anonymized manuscript or in the graphical abstract, it will be grounds for rejection and resubmission of the manuscript.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure
Subdivision - unnumbered sections

An impersonal writing style is recommended. It is advisable to divide the manuscript into sections. For original articles, use the following sections: Introduction, Material or Patients and Methods, Results and Discussion. We recommend starting each section on a new page. In general, make minimum use of abbreviations. Internationally-recognised abbreviations are permitted and uncommon abbreviations should be expanded at first mention. Avoid using abbreviations in the title or abstract. Authors may use either the metric system or SI (International System) for units of measure. If SI units are chosen, it is advisable to add the metric unit in brackets immediately afterward. Use generic drug names. Identify instruments used for laboratory tests and other techniques by adding the brand name and manufacturer’s address in brackets.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

The authors should mention in the methods section that the procedures used on patients and controls have been performed after obtaining informed parental consent.


Results should be clear and concise.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration.  Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Structured abstract

The structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

Original articles should have an abstract of approximately 250 words, structured as follows: Introduction, Material or Patients and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. These sections will describe, respectively, the research question, the way the study was conducted, the most noteworthy results, and conclusions that can be drawn from the results. Authors should ensure that the abstract gives details of the most important results because the English version of the abstract will be entered in MEDLINE.

Graphical abstract

This element will be mandatory in the "Original" section. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. The PPT format or MS Office documents will be used and this template will be followed. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Three to ten keywords should be appended to the abstract, chosen from MeSH® terms in the Index Medicus, available at: Scientific letters should not have an abstract or keywords.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Image manipulation

Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Figures refer to all diagrams, drawings and photographs, and are numbered with Arabic numerals in the order they appear in the text. To create graphs, follow the guidelines in ‘‘Graphs for statistical data in medicine’’ [in Spanish] available at Occasionally, colour photographs and drawings may be accepted by the Directors’ and Editors’ Team, provided that there is a prior financial agreement between the authors and Elsevier España. If patient information, photographs, or data are reproduced, the patient should not be identifiable. The authors have to declare that they are in possession of a written informed consent signed by the parents to state their permission to authorize publication, reproduction, and dissemination in print and in open-access electronic format in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA (Barcelona). Figure legends should be written on the corresponding page in the main text.


Number tables with Arabic numerals in the order they appear in the text. Tables should be double spaced on a separate page and not exceed a full page. The title, placed at the top, should concisely describe the contents so that the table can be understood without having to read the main text. Define any abbreviations at the bottom of the table. Do not repeat the same data in the main text, tables and figures.

Citation in text

References should be numbered consecutively in the order they appear in the text, in superscript format. References to journal articles should be ordered as follows: Authors, with surname(s) followed by first name initial without punctuation, separating each author by a comma; full title in the original language, abbreviated journal name as listed in Index Medicus, year of publication, volume number, and inclusive page numbers. List all authors unless there are more than six, in which case list the first six and then add “et al”. Follow a similar style for book references.

The list of references should not include citations such as ‘‘personal communication’’, ‘‘in press’’ or ‘‘submitted for publication’’, or congress abstracts that have not been published in a scientific journal. If it is considered essential to cite such references, do so in the corresponding place in the main text and mention their source.

For reference format, refer to the recommendations issued by the National Library of Medicine:

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VStirnemann J, Belmatoug N, Camou F, Serratrice C, Froissart R, Caillaud C, et al. A review of Gaucher disease pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatments. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;

Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software

Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Pichel López M, Martínez-Isasi S, Barcala-Furelos R, Fernández-Méndez F, Vázquez Santamaría D, Sánchez-Santos L, et al. Un primer paso en la enseñanza del soporte  vital básico en las escuelas: la formación de los profesores. An Pediatr (Barc). 2018;89:265-71.

Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.

Reference to a book:
3. García Nieto V, Santos F, Rodríguez Iturbe B, editors. Nefrología Pediátrica. 2nd ed. Madrid: Grupo Aula médica; 2006. Capítulo de libro Franco M, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Herrera Acosta J. Fisiología glomerular. In: García Nieto V, Santos F, Rodríguez Iturbe B, editores. Nefrología Pediátrica. 2nd ed. Madrid: Grupo Aula médica. 2006. p. 9-38.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304.

Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2018 [accessed 13 March 2018].

Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51-9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' See also Samples of Formatted References.

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.


Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

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